It was used for shipbuilding, and derived products such as rails were also exported from the newly-built docks. Retrieved 5 March Listed buildings in Barrow-in-Furness and List of tallest buildings and structures in Barrow-in-Furness. The first people to settle in what is now Barrow were the Celts and Scandinavians followed by the Cornish. During the war, a local housewife, Nella Last , was selected to write a diary of her experiences on the home front for the Mass-Observation project. I am waiting.
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It should also be noted that there was a significant presence of Vickers' armament division in Barrow with the huge Heavy Engineering Workshop on Michaelson Road supplying ammunition for the British Army and Royal Navy throughout both world wars. World War 1 brought significant temporary migration as workers arrived to work in the munitions factory and shipyard, with the town's population reaching to an estimated peak of around 82, during the War.
During the war, a local housewife, Nella Last , was selected to write a diary of her experiences on the home front for the Mass-Observation project. Her memoirs were later adapted for television as Housewife, 49 starring Victoria Wood. The difficulty in targeting bombs meant that the shipyards and steelworks were often missed, at the expense of the residential areas.
Ultimately, 83 people were killed and 11, houses in the area were left damaged. To escape the heaviest bombardments, many people in the central areas left the town to sleep in hedgerows with some being permanently evacuated. Barrow's population reached a second peak in of 77, in ,  however by this point the long decline of mining and steel-making as a result of overseas competition and dwindling resources had already begun.
The Barrow ironworks closed in ,  three years after the last Furness mine shut. The by then small steelworks followed suit in ,  leaving Barrow's shipyard as the town's principal industry. The last of these are armed with Trident II missiles as part of the British government's Trident nuclear programme. The end of the Cold War in marked a reduction in the demand for military ships and submarines, and the town continued its decline.
The shipyard's dependency on military contracts at the expense of civilian and commercial engineering and shipbuilding meant it was particularly hard hit as government defence spending was reduced dramatically. In a outbreak of legionellosis in the town, people were reported to have caught the disease, of whom seven died.
This made it the fourth worst outbreak in the world in terms of number of cases and sixth worst in terms of deaths. The source of the bacteria was later found to be steam from a badly maintained air conditioning unit in the council-run arts centre Forum At the conclusion of the inquest into the seven deaths, the coroner for Furness and South Cumbria criticised the council for its health and safety failings.
Ormonde Wind Farm and Walney Wind Farm followed in , the latter of which became the largest offshore wind farm in the world. West of Duddon Sands Wind Farm was commissioned in whole Walney was extended in to again become the world's largest such offshore facility.
Barrow is the largest town in the Borough of Barrow-in-Furness  and the largest settlement in the peninsula of Furness. The borough is the direct inheritor of the municipal and county borough charters given to the town in the late 19th century. It still forms a part of the Duchy of Lancaster. The town, along with Walney Island , is unparished and forms the bulk of the wards which make the entire borough's area.
The seat was won by the Conservative Party in , before being won for the first time by Labour in In the subsequent forty years the seat swung between Conservative and Labour, but since it has been generally considered a Labour safe seat. It was subsequently won by the Conservatives, with the victory attributed to Labour's stance against the nuclear-powered submarines that were being constructed in Barrow.
John Woodcock has been the MP for the constituency since the general election. Barrow is situated at the tip of the Furness peninsula on the north-western edge of Morecambe Bay , south of the Duddon Estuary and east of the Irish Sea. Walney Island , to the west of Barrow, surrounds the peninsula's Irish Sea coast and is separated from Barrow by the narrow Walney Channel.
Both Morecambe Bay and the Duddon Estuary are characterized by large areas of quicksand and fast-moving tidal bores. Areas of sand dunes exist on coasts surrounding Barrow, particularly at Roanhead and North Walney. Barrow's soils are composed of glacial lake clay and glacial till , while Walney is almost entirely made up of reworked glacial morraine. Barrow town centre is located to the north-east of the docks, with suburbs also extending to the north and east, as well as onto Walney.
Barrow is the only major urban area in South Cumbria, with the nearest settlements of a similar size being Lancaster and Morecambe. About 13, live on the isle's various settlements, mostly in Vickerstown , which was built to house workers in the rapidly expanding shipyard. Another significant island which lay in the Walney Channel was Barrow Island , but following the filling of the channel to create land for the shipyard it is now directly connected to the town.
There are numerous natural and managed public parks and open spaces within Barrow. There are also 25 Council-owned playground and 15 allotments. Barrow on the west coast of Great Britain has a temperate maritime climate owing to the North Atlantic Current and tends to have milder winters than central and eastern parts of the country.
The town lies in Hardiness zone 9 and has an average yearly temperature of The Barrow council district , which includes adjacent urban areas, had a population of around 69, according to the census. This is largely a result of negative net migration. The census states The first people to settle in what is now Barrow were the Celts and Scandinavians followed by the Cornish.
Most Barrovians however are descended from immigrants from Scotland , Ireland and other parts of England who arrived from the late 19th century onwards. Barrow has significant Chinese in particular those originating from Hong Kong , Filipino , Indian , Thai and Kosovan communities as well as a Polish population which partly dates back to World War II, however in general Barrow has a much lower proportion of ethnic minorities than national average.
Barrow's Chinese connections were the subject of a documentary on Chinese state television in It was established in and publishes the quarterly China Eye magazine. In The five most common foreign countries of birth were Poland , the Republic of Ireland , Germany, the Philippines and India. According to the census, In the census People stating no religion or chose not to state totalled Other religious groups represented 0.
Nonetheless, it closed in and only a dozen Jews were recorded by the census. Historically Barrow's economy was dominated by the manufacturing sector, with the Barrow Hematite Steel Company and Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering being amongst the most important global companies in their respective fields during the 20th century.
In the present day, manufacturing remains the largest employment sector in the town with BAE Systems being the single largest employer. However, like most of the UK, employment trends have greatly diversified since the 20th century and there are no other predominant employment sectors in Barrow.
Barrow has played a vital role in global ship and submarine construction for around years. The vast majority of all current and former Royal Navy submarines were constructed in Barrow as well as numerous Royal Navy Fleet Flagships. It was expanded in by construction of a new covered assembly facility, the Devonshire Dock Hall DDH , completed by Alfred McAlpine , on land that was created by infilling part of the Devonshire Dock with 2.
The DDH provides a controlled environment for ship and submarine assembly, and avoids the difficulties caused by building on the slope of traditional slipways. Outside the hall, a 24, tonne capacity shiplift allows completed vessels to be lowered into the water independently of the tide.
Vessels can also be lifted out of the water and transferred to the hall. The shipyard is currently constructing the Astute -class submarines, the first of which was launched on 8 June The shipyard has been awarded contracts for the construction of submarines which will carry nuclear missiles in a successor programme to the current Vanguard class containing the Trident system.
This major development is the largest in 25 years at the shipyard and will see thousands of new jobs created, further cementing its place as the UK's largest shipyard and one of the few to have seen continuous contracts since founding over a century ago.
The four main docks include Buccleuch Dock , Cavendish Dock , Devonshire Dock and Ramsden Dock , with the latter handling almost all of the port's cargo. Principal traffic includes the export of condensate by-product from the production of gas at the Rampside Gas Terminal , wood pulp and locally quarried limestone which is exported to Scandinavia for use in the paper industry.
The port, which has deep water access, also handles the shipment of nuclear fuels and radioactive waste for BNFL 's nearby Sellafield plant. In , gas was discovered in Morecambe Bay, and to this day the products have been processed onshore at Rampside Gas Terminal in south Barrow. Although originally coal-fired, the station became gas-fired until it was mothballed in Barrow and its wider urban area form part of 'Britain's Energy Coast',  and has one of the highest concentrations of wind farms in the world, the vast majority are located offshore and have been built during the early s.
Walney Wind Farm was the largest offshore wind farm in the world upon completion, in it received Government consent to be trebled in size. Although it is at the end of a peninsula, Barrow is only around 20 minutes from the Lake District ,  Barrow has been referred to as a "gateway to the lakes" and "where the lakes meets the sea",  a status which could be enhanced by the new marina complex and planned cruise ship terminal.
Barrow itself has several tourist attractions that support just over 1, jobs; the town saw a higher growth in tourist expenditure during the s than Cumbria as a whole and had about 2. The museum tells the history of Barrow including the steelworks industry, the shipyard and the Barrow Blitz , as well as offering gallery space to local artists and schoolchildren.
It is built upon and around an old graving dock. Barrow has a number of beaches which are popular in the summer with sunbathers, kitesurfers and caravanners. The first two of these provide views of the Isle of Man and Anglesey on exceptionally clear days. South Lakes Safari Zoo is one of Europe's leading conservation zoos and has been voted Cumbria's best tourist attraction in five non-consecutive years although it has a checkered history; it lies within the borough of Barrow-in-Furness on the outskirts of Dalton.
The zoo underwent a multi-million pound expansion during the mids. Barrow has been described as the Lake District's premier shopping town, with 'big name shops mingling with small local ones'. Other modern visitor attractions in Barrow include the growing leisure destination at James Freel Close consisting of an indoor kart racing complex, bowling alley, indoor skate park , trampoline centre and gym , as well as 'Lazer Zone' in Hindpool Road's former Custom House and a similar lazer quest, 'escape room' and play centre in the former Hitchens Building on Buccleuch Street.
Urban regeneration has been ongoing in Barrow since the s. Portland Walk Shopping Centre opened in anchored by Debenhams as part of a major reconstruction of Barrow town centre. A large watersports centre is also proposed, with the possibility of a cruise ship terminal. Some cruise ships are already scheduled to dock in Barrow, mainly for tourists to visit the Lake District, although there is no official cruise ship terminal yet.
Amongst many retailers that have established themselves in Barrow, the furniture store Stollers is noted as being one of the largest shops of its kind in the UK. This figure is higher than the North West and England averages. The list below shows how many people were employed in certain sectors according to the census.
Little change has occurred over the year period since the previous census; Barrow still has a much higher percentage of workers in the manufacturing sector than the national average, ranking third in behind Corby , Northamptonshire and Pendle , Lancashire. Barrow's principal road link is the A The possibility of a bridge link over Morecambe Bay is occasionally raised, and feasibility studies have been carried out.
Bus services within the town are operated by Stagecoach North West. There is no specifically designated bus station, although many bus routes start and end near the town hall. The original bus station, since demolished, was known for its role in a s television commercial for Chewits sweets. Numerous daily trains run to Manchester. The station handles over , passengers annually.
Barrow has a second railway station, Roose , which serves the suburb of the same name. Furness Abbey , Barrow's third main line station, closed in There was also a station on Barrow Island , for commuters between the shipyard and nearby towns served by the Furness Railway. This railway link was severed in when the famous cradle bridge across the docks was closed permanently for safety reasons.
Between and , the Barrow-in-Furness Tramways Company operated a double-decker tram service over several miles, primarily around central Barrow, Barrow Island and Hindpool. The airport was expanded by BAE in including the construction of a new terminal building, hangar and control tower. Manchester Airport is the closest major airport, with direct links to Barrow railway station and about two hours away by road.
For a short period during the early s transatlantic travel was possible from the town. There are proposals to construct a cruise ship terminal in Barrow as part of the Waterfront redevelopment project. Barrow A. Holker Old Boys F. Rugby league is a well-established sport and the town is considered as one of the game's traditional heartlands at professional and amateur levels.
In the s the side played in three Challenge Cup finals, winning the last of these against Workington Town. Players who were born in the town and played at a professional level include brothers Ade  and Mat Gardner  and Willie Horne. Barrow is home to two large golf clubs. It also offers an hole course, a shop and other facilities. Barrow has staged speedway racing at three venues since the pioneer days in the late s.
The first track was at Holker Street. This venue had a revival for a short spell in the early to mids being utilised by the short-lived Barrow Bombers. In the sport moved to Little Park but this a somewhat hazy venue. The sport had a revival in at Park Avenue Industrial Estate but this was relatively short lived. Kart racer Kristian Brierley  received national attention after successfully winning the internationally televised TKM Karting Festival in Barrow is home to the Walney Terriers American Football club, formed in the club originally trained at Memorial Fields on Walney Island before establishing training grounds elsewhere in Barrow and Ulverston.
The event has raised millions for charity and regularly sees in excess of 3, participants. Barrow Born Orienteer and Fell Runner Carl Hill was selected to carry the olympic torch for a stage through Morecambe in the buildup to the summer Olympics. He was nominated for this honor by his father David Hill who was proud of his sons accomplishments in running for England and Great Britain in Orienteering whilst also provided a large portion of his time to getting kids into sport.
Barrow, although one of the country's smallest local authorities contains a wealth of natural and built heritage assets, which includes Listed Buildings and four SSSIs. The Heritage Index formed by the Royal Society of Arts and the Heritage Lottery Fund placed the borough as seventh highest of English districts with especially high scores relating to nationally important landscape and natural heritage assets and industrial heritage assets.
Barrow is one of Britain's few planned towns and the spacious tree-lined avenues within parts of the town centre are more akin to the layout of a much larger city. George's Church , St. Mary's RC Church and St. James' Church. Lancaster architects Sharpe, Paley and Austin were prolific throughout the development of Barrow. A number of Barrow's landmark buildings were constructed from locally sourced sandstone, evident from the high number of brown and red coloured stone buildings in the town.
Similar materials were used in a number of local buildings in the early 20th Century, and often accompanied by terracotta. There are also an increasing number of modern office buildings as well as the shipyard's construction halls which dominate much of Barrow's skyline. Despite much of Barrow having been constructed from the late 19th to mid 20th centuries, architectural styles vary greatly across the town from the Art Deco John Whinnerah Institute to the Byzantine style St.
George's Square. In terms of housing, the majority of dwellings in Barrow are Victorian terraces. At Most were built around a grid design in accordance with plans drawn up by James Ramsden. Barrow has produced several musical performers of note. Expressive arts Several notables in Art and Literature have come from Barrow.
All but the Pavilion and Roxy have since been demolished, most recently in with the demolition of the Apollo formerly the Ritz. Literature In fictional works, Barrow and Vickerstown on Walney Island featured in children's show The Railway Series , which developed into Thomas the Tank Engine , as the point where the fictional Island of Sodor connected to mainland Britain and the national rail network.
A number of the Lake Poets have referred to locations in present day Barrow, with one notable example being William Wordsworth 's autobiographical poem The Prelude which describes his visits to Furness Abbey. Renowned novelist D. Lawrence was in Barrow during the outbreak of World War I and wrote about his experiences in the town. The novel Career of Evil by J.
Rowling 's pseudonym Robert Galbraith was parially set in Barrow. There is one paid-for evening daily paper, The Mail. There is also a weekly freesheet called the Advertiser , which is delivered to most households in the Furness area. Barrow is served by one commercial radio station, Heart North Lancashire and Cumbria , which broadcasts from Lancaster and serves the area around Morecambe Bay.
Another commercial station, Abbey FM , ceased broadcasting in February when it went into administration. There is also a relay transmitter at Millom whose signal can be received in the northern end of the town. Various television personalities were born in the district. Dave Myers was a biker born in Barrow, and found fame as one half of television cookery duo the Hairy Bikers.
Wartime diarist and local housewife Nella Last 's memoirs were adapted for television, with parts of the town used in filming. The resulting programme, Housewife, 49 , written by and starring comedian Victoria Wood , was broadcast by ITV in Awdry , on which the TV series is based. Furness is unique within Cumbria and the local dialect and accent is fairly Lancashire -orientated.
Until Furness was an exclave of Lancashire. As with Liverpool for example however, the Barrovian dialect has been influenced by large numbers of settlers from various regions. During the town's rapid growth from onwards, thousands came to Barrow from Scotland , Ireland , Wales and elsewhere in northern England. As Glaswegian and Geordie dialects mingled in Barrow numerous more migrated from Lancashire and other parts of England which in effect created the noticeably Northern Barrovian dialect.
In general the Barrovian accent tends to drop certain letters including H and T. There are many pubs and working men's clubs in Barrow. Barrow has fourteen of the latter, one of the highest number per capita of any British town. Popular venues on Duke Street include the following bars: They did have a Yates's but the building was deemed unsafe and has since been demolished.
Cornwallis Street — often dubbed the " Gaza Strip " by locals — is currently undergoing a multi-million pound renovation with the former Martini's being the flagship renovation into Club M. Other clubs on Cornwallis Street include: Kavanna's, O'Sullivan's and Skint. Between and Barrow was home to one of North West England's largest nightclubs, the 2, capacity Blue Lagoon occupied the entire hull of the former Danish ferry Princess Selandia which has now left the town.
A traditional favourite food in Barrow is the pie and particularly the meat and potato pie. Barrow was also the home of soft-drink company Marsh's , which produced a distinctive sarsaparilla flavoured fizzy drink known as Sass. Remaining bottles have subsequently sold for high prices as a collector's item.
Traditional Cumberland sausages are less associated with Barrow itself than the rest of Cumbria, but are readily available from the surrounding rural area. Having emerged as mixture of working class cultures from across Britain and Ireland in the 19th Century, subsequent low levels of migration and a continued tradition of industrial employment mean that Barrow's culture still reflects many of the traditions of the British Working Class.
In the Indices of Deprivation , Barrow was ranked as the 44th most deprived district in England out of a total of Within these subcategories, most notably Barrow ranked as the 5th most deprived in terms of health deprivation and disability, and in huge contrast, th most deprived in terms of access to housing and services i. However, a number of indicators are similar to the average or are significantly better, including rates of homelesness, STI transmission and road deaths.
Policing is by Cumbria Constabulary , which alongside the county of Cumbria was formed in Previously the town was policed by Barrow-in-Furness Borough Police. Barrow previously had one full-time police station in Market Street in the Central ward. A new multi-million pound building was built on James Freel Close on Channelside in Hindpool and is the town's only police station, with extra jail cells and improved facilities.
Several consecutive annual publications by Cumbria Constabulary entitled the 'Cumbria Community Safety Strategic Assessment' have stated that overall crime in Barrow is declining, with some indicators far better than the national average. Robbery averaged 0. Education in the state-funded sector includes fifteen primary schools , five infant schools , five junior schools and many nurseries.
The three secondary schools in the town are: Furness Academy , St. Chetwynde School is an all-through school for children aged 4 to Formerly an independent school , Chetwynde became a state-funded free school in In the further education sector there is one college, Furness College. Although there is no higher education institution based in Barrow, Furness College offers several higher apprenticeships, foundation degrees , Bachelor's and Master's programmes accredited by the University of Cumbria , University of Lancaster and the University of Central Lancashire.
The town's main library is the Central Library in Ramsden Square , situated near the town centre. A branch of the County Archive Service, opened in and containing many of the town's archives, is located within adjoining premises,  whilst until the library also housed the Furness Museum, a forerunner of the Dock Museum. Known librarian Michael Wilson originates in Barrow-in-Furness.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Barrow-in-Furness Clockwise from the upper left: Mary's Church Coat of arms of Barrow-in-Furness. North West. Barrow and Furness. See also: Timeline of Barrow-in-Furness. Main article: Islands of Furness. List of places of worship in Barrow-in-Furness. Main articles: Barrow Raiders. Listed buildings in Barrow-in-Furness and List of tallest buildings and structures in Barrow-in-Furness.
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Retrieved 10 March Borough of Barrow-in-Furness. Archived from the original on 23 September Dalton Online. Dalton Community Association. Archived from the original on 10 August Retrieved 6 July England's Islands". The Independent. Archived from the original on 27 September Retrieved 10 August Abbey House Hotel. Submarine Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 4 July
Retrieved 16 September Archived from the original on 10 August You must be logged in to create an alert. CN Group. Female Gay Age:
Retrieved 16 August There are proposals to construct a cruise ship terminal in Barrow as part of the Waterfront redevelopment project. The more the merrier, females only We are new to this, decided to make fantasy a reality in the bedroom. Borough of Barrow-in-Furness. Archived from the original on 29 June